Gene Therapy Essay - Words | Bartleby

 

gene therapy essay

Gene Therapy Essay Words 19 Pages Gene Therapy Gene therapy is a powerful new technology that has the ability to change the way medicine is practiced in the future. Gene Therapy Essays (Examples) E1: The first step in this process will revolve around doing further preparation on what constitutes an E2: Specific attention in regard to this recommendation will be directed at all E3: Our recommended guide for this element comes from the writings of Joshua. Essay on Gene Therapy! Essay on the History of Gene Therapy: Gene therapy was conceived in , the breakthrough was the synthesis of recombinant DNA molecule (rDNA) in The rDNA molecules were first duplicated and grown in bacteria in Later split gene was discovered through the use of recombinant DNA technologies in


Essay on Gene Therapy | Genetics


The rDNA molecules were first duplicated and grown in bacteria in Later split gene was discovered through the use of gene therapy essay DNA technologies in Two independent techniques were developed in to determine the DNA sequences that contain genetic information.

This facilitated direct inspection of the genetic material and analysis of its functions. A strain of Pseudomonas bacterium was developed later in that could digest certain petrochemical. These techniques lead to the launch of Humulin i. Recombinant DNA techniques were first used for the prenatal detection of sickle cell disease in The gene therapy essay between zinc and growth hormone gene was due to special DNA sequence in the growth hormone gene.

The progeny of the genetically altered mice inherited the new gene, to make them grow twice in size. Single gene associated mutation leads to genetic diseases. This would be corrected by single gene therapy, which is relatively easy as compared to multiple gene based traits or its interaction with environment. Such diseases are called single gene defects.

Most diseases have a mixture of genetic and environmental contributions. In disorders like Huntington or Tay-Sachs diseases, the influence of a single gene is so vast that the disorders are called genetic diseases. The similar patterns of inheritance have been observed in various human diseases, and thus indicate gene associated diseases, gene therapy essay.

The disease due to molecular defects in non-enzyme proteins has also been observed. It is sickle cell anemia, in which an abnormal hemoglobin protein has been found. Many genetic diseases are due to changes in just a single gene, such as Adenosine deaminase ADA and purine nucleoside phosphorylase PNP enzyme deficiencies among human.

Disorders such as sickle cell anemia, familial hypercholesterolemia, polycystic kidney disease, gene therapy essay, Huntington disease, neurofibromatosis, Duchenne muscular dystrophy, gene therapy essay, cystic fibrosis, achondroplasia, hemophilia etc.

The prevalence of disease like Alzheimer and hemochromatosis has been influenced by genetics. Single gene traits vary in expression, depending on its interaction with other genes and environment.

The degree to which individual subject manifests signs and a symptom of genetic disease is termed as expressivity. Diseases can also be expressed with different intensity in populations, affecting some people and not others even though carrying the concerned gene.

This is called penetrance. If all having the defective gene also express the disease is called complete penetrance, while incomplete penetrance is when some people have the gene but not the disease. When one receives faulty gene from both parents is termed as recessive disorder. Disorders due to dysfunctional gene pairs are mostly due to protein abnormalities that lead to a biochemical imbalance.

Sickle cell anemia and thalassemia affect the protein part globin of hemoglobin, which carries oxygen via the blood to tissues. Most of the relatively well understood genetic diseases gene therapy essay recessive disorders that can be linked to specific defects in enzymes. In most dominant disorders the biochemical nature of the abnormality has not been observed. The molecular defect in dominant disorders is not established as it is for recessive gene therapy essay. When offspring having just one defective gene from one of its parentgene therapy essay, lead to expression of the disease is called dominant disorder.

This include abnormal disruption gene therapy essay biochemical pathways followed by heme degradation due to deficiency of enzymes. The abnormalities which are carried through X chromosome are termed as X- linked diseases. In general males are affected as males have gene therapy essay one copy of the X chromosome. Female can get a defective gene from either parent, but do not usually have the disease unless they get the abnormal gene from both the parents. X-linked traits thus act like dominant traits inherited only from the mother in male, and are usually recessive in female.

X-linked disease traits in human are hemophilia, Duchenne muscular dystrophy, and Lesch-Nyhan syndrome, gene therapy essay. There are apparently few traits, gene therapy essay, and no known diseases, that are carried in genes located on the Y chromosome, and expressed only in males. Single gene defects are, in general, the best understood of genetic diseases; the early instances of gene therapy might well be done to correct the effects of single mutant genes.

Multi-gene traits are certain traits that build up from the interactions of numerous genes democratically and therefore do not comply with simple Mendelian inheritance. Eye and hair color are the traits that are specified by such pattern. There are certain diseases as a result of interactions of multiple genes that are least affected by environmental influences. Many traits in individuals are determined phenotypically by an interaction of genetic predisposition with the environment.

There are diseases derived from interactions of genes and the environment in which both components contribute to the disease progression. Diabetes gene therapy essay in human at younger age is supposedly caused by a special susceptibility of insulin secreting cells to certain viral infections or other environmental exposure.

There is little doubt that genetics and environment interact, but there is serious gene therapy essay whether which factor predominates.

Gene therapy has been observed in animals and lower organisms. Genetic correction has been attempted successfully in fruit flies and mice, gene therapy essay.

New genes have been incorporated in mammalian cells, but the gene inserted into chromosomal or cellular locations is yet to be predicted or regulated for their action, gene therapy essay.

Genes transfer has been attempted to progeny in mice i. The growth hormone experiment was important as it had expression of the gene under manipulation, and inherited to the progeny of the treated mice. Although genetic manipulations have occasionally leaded to undesired effects i. Animal experimentations have leaded to change in germ line mostly therefore recent attempt is being based on somatic cells of animals.

These are more analogous to early human trials. Gene has been inserted through modified virus vector into bone marrow cells of mice and created proteins successfully. However apprehension of reversion of infection among viruses, induction of fresh mutations, cancer and integration into the germ line may appear as the study would proceed.

Proper regulation of gene expression in the cells of humans and other higher animals is more intricate as compared to fruit flies and bacteria, gene therapy essay. In contrast to genetic diseases of single genes or few genes, there are few disorders caused by abnormal chromosomes.

There are group of genetic disorders due to surplus or shortage of chromosomes. Subjects may have an abnormal number of chromosomes or its parts i. Down syndrome. Correction of such chromosomal anomalies is practically not possible by gene therapy as chromosomes typically contain numerous genes, gene therapy essay. Few dominant traits might be treated by gene therapy i. These are inherited as dominant traits.

There are diseases caused by deletions of small amounts of DNA and that could be replaced i. Few dominant disorders have gene therapy essay characterized biochemically, and simple gene insertion may not correct many dominant disorders.

Techniques for these complex manipulations have not been demonstrated in mammals. Therefore such therapy of dominant disorders is supposedly will take long to appear.

It should be based on scrutiny of risks and benefits for the individual patient with the thought of its wider implications. The factors considered should include latent efficacy, safety, dependability, alternative treatments if any, gravity of symptoms, and prognosis. This would be needed to be customized for particular genetic disease except some common factors which is applicable to the technique of gene therapy as such.

It would be necessary to judge safety and efficacy on animal data, procured in experiments that involve gene transfer. Gene therapy essay, it would be tough to ascertain clinical benefit in the animals. Experiments might be performed, using the same gene and delivery system as would be used in human and the animals observed to see if they express the gene or develop side effects.

Safety includes not only short term effects, but also long term consequences that may require years to confirm. The effects in the next generation would be tough to assess especially if it involves germ line cells.

The germ line effect has been observed in chemotherapy and radiation therapy involving tumour, gene therapy essay. There is risk of inducing fresh mutations in the subject which can ultimately be through to next generation. If experiments involve gene therapy to the patient, then impact over germ line may be a matter of concern. It would require to see the risk benefit ratio. There are some specific concerns of using viruses as a vector to transfer DNA.

There is possibility of its attaining virulence owing to reshuffling of genetic material in the host. So it would be prerequisite to design DNA not let the virus revert to being infectious. It would be required to regulate the gene therapy essay and integration of DNA into that of the host cell, gene therapy essay, which may lead to fresh mutations in the cells.

It may rarely lead to develop neoplasm. Determination of safety would gene therapy essay supposed to be derived from experiments on animals, gene therapy essay.

Among human, gene therapy has been considered depending upon severity of diseases, which included deficiency like ADA and PNP, urea cycle defeats, or Lesch-Nyhan syndrome.

In these cases there is a complete lack of therapy, therefore treatment may have risk. This may further pave the way if remained safe.

However, it needs to be repeatable and reliable as well. Molecular genetics is evolving at a brisk pace from its infancy.

It emerged after the discovery of DNA gene therapy essay. DNA has been subjected to alteration during early seventies by specific cutting and reassembly further. The modified DNA gene therapy essay later reintroduced into cells. Regulation of the genes expression needs to ensure that the inserted gene in DNA will have desirable functions in the concerned cells and would not act otherwise.

Genes are copied and passed on by DNA replication. Genetic information is transmitted from one cell to its progeny by duplication or replication of its DNA. When a cell divides, it copies its DNA and distributes a copy to each of two offspring cells.

 

 

gene therapy essay

 

Gene Therapy Essay Words | 19 Pages. Gene Therapy Gene therapy is a powerful new technology that has the ability to change the way medicine is practiced in the future. The potential of gene therapy offers great hope for cure and alleviation of suffering from genetic disorders that now plague numerous people. Gene Therapy Essays (Examples) E1: The first step in this process will revolve around doing further preparation on what constitutes an E2: Specific attention in regard to this recommendation will be directed at all E3: Our recommended guide for this element comes from the writings of Joshua. Human Gene Therapy Essay. When scientists discovers a gene that is faulty, the research begins. Scientists compare the faulty gene to the healthy functional gene. This could tell scientists a lot about the faulty gene and how it affects the chemical reactions within a cell. This may lead to the development of new drugs to control the condition.